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Intrinsic Semiconductor:Bonds in Semiconductors The atoms of every element are held together by the bonding action of valence electrons. This bonding is due to the fact that it is the tendency of each atom to complete its last orbit by acquiring 8 electrons in it. However, in most of the substances, the last orbit is complete. i.e. the last orbit does not have 8 electrons. This makes the atom active to enter into bargain with other the atoms acquire 8 electrons in the last orbit.To do so, the atom may lose, gain or share valance electrons with other atoms. In semiconductors, bonds are formed by sharing of valance electrons. Such bonds are called Co-Valeant bonds. In the formation of a covalent bond, each atom contributes equal numbers of valence electrons and the contributed electrons are shared by the atoms engaged in the formation of the bond.For example a germanium atom has 4 valance electrons. It is the tendency of each germanium atom to have 8 electrons in the last orbit. To do so, each germanium atom positions itself between 4 other germanium atoms as shown is the diagram each neighboring atom shares one valance electron with the central atom. In this business of sharing completes its last orbit by having 8 electrons revolving round the nucleus.In the way,the central atom setup Co-Valeant bonds.
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